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What are dental implant types and their functions?

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Dental implants are divided into 5 groups based on their functions as follows: Intramucosal Inserts: Button implants are inserted on removable dentures surface and on the side, they are inserted within the oral mucosa. Then, by inserting the denture in its place; they play the role of stabilizing it on patient’s jaw. These implants have been used for fixing complete dentures in upper jaw but using them is not common these days. 

What are dental implant types and their functions?
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What are dental implant types and their functions?

Dental implants are divided into 5 groups based on their functions as follows:

Intramucosal Inserts:

Button implants are inserted on removable dentures surface and on the side, they are inserted within the oral mucosa. Then, by inserting the denture in its place; they play the role of stabilizing it on patient’s jaw. These implants have been used for fixing complete dentures in upper jaw but using them is not common these days.

Subperiosteal Implants:

These implants have a ladder like structure to be compatible with alveolar bone in jaws. They are designed to stabilize prosthesis especially when the lower jaw atrophy is severe. These implants are manufactured and prepared in a 2-stage surgery. In the first stage, periosteal mucosa texture is pushed aside from the bone surface. Then, molding is performed to have a shape for producing sub-periosteal implants.

In the second stage, this structure is inserted under the mucosa texture during a surgery. Prosthesis is inserted on the bases of this structure that are located outside of the mucosa texture. Nowadays, it is possible to have the shape of patient’s jaw by computerized tomographic techniques so that there is no need to perform the surgery of first stage. In this way, the implant is inserted into the jaw just be one surgery.

Transosseous Implants:  

These implants are inserted in lower jaw anterior area. The screws will pass the width of the jaw completely. These implants are used when mandible bone atrophy is very severe. It will stabilize the denture in lower jaw.

These implants are inserted in to the mandible bone by two kinds of surgery: inside or outside of the oral cavity. Despite of relative considerable success of this technique; this is hardly used due to complicated and difficult procedure of inserting them in the jaw bone.

Endosseous Implants:

These implants are inserted within the jaw bone and prosthesis will be produced after stabilizing the implant in the jaw bone. Nowadays, Endosseous Implants are used more than the other types of implants.

Endodontic Implants:

These pin implants are used when the tooth is periodontally and the proportion of crown to root is not suitable. For this type of implant, it is necessary to clean and prepare the canal of the root.

After preparing the end of root, it is necessary to use a reamer to remove a part of the root. Then, the area will be filled with a sealer and the implant is inserted into the canal of the root. It should be fastened with screws in its place. 

 

 

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